Types of common printing
What are the types of printing

In addition to selecting the appropriate substrate (paper or other substrate) and ink, the final effect of the printed matter still needs to be completed through appropriate printing methods. There are many types of printing, different methods, different operations, and different costs and effects.

The main classification methods are as follows:

Classification of printing methods based on the relative positions of graphic and non-graphic areas on the printing plate

According to the relative positions of the graphic and non-graphic areas on the printing plate, the common printing methods can be divided into four categories: letterpress printing, gravure printing, lithography, and stencil printing:

(1) Letterpress printing. The graphic portion of the printing plate is raised, which is significantly higher than the blank portion. The printing principle is similar to the seal. Early woodblock printing, letterpress printing, and later type printing are all letterpress printing.

(2) Gravure printing. The graphic portion of the printing plate is lower than the blank portion. It is often used for printing banknotes, stamps, and other securities.

(3) Lithographic printing, in which the graphic part and blank part of the printing plate are almost on the same plane, and the printing method is based on the principle of oil and water immiscibility.

(4) Stencil printing. The graphic portion of the printing plate is a hole. The ink is transferred to the surface of the substrate through the hole. Common stencil printing includes a hollow plate and a screen plate.
Classification of printing methods according to the paper feeding method of the printing press

According to the paper feeding method used by the printing press, printing can be divided into:

Offset printing: Also known as sheetfed printing. It uses flat paper for printing.

Web printing: Also called web printing. It is a method of printing on a web.

Classification of printing methods based on whether the printing plate is in contact with the substrate

According to whether the printing plate is in direct contact with the substrate, printing can be divided into:

Direct printing: The printing ink on the printing plate is in direct contact with the substrate for printing. Such as letterpress printing, gravure printing, screen printing.

Indirect printing: printing method in which the printing plate's ink is transferred to a substrate through a blanket.

Classification of printing methods based on whether they are used

According to whether a printing plate is used, printing can be divided into:

Plate printing: The printing plate is printed on the substrate by a pre-made printing plate. Such as letterpress printing, gravure printing, screen printing.

Plateless printing: A method in which a printing plate is directly printed on a substrate through a computer-driven print head (or print head). Such as digital printing.

Classification of printing methods based on printing principles

According to the printing principle, that is, the principle of generating printed matter during the printing process according to the printed portion and the unprinted portion of the printing plate, it can be divided into two categories: physical printing and chemical printing.
1. For physical printing, the printing ink is completely stacked in the printed part, and the non-printed part is concave or convex, and the height of the printed part is different from that of the printed part. Part of the ink is transferred to the printed material, which is only a physical and mechanical effect. General letterpress printing, gravure printing, stencil printing, dry lithography, etc. are all physical printing (the printed side is higher or lower than the non-printed side).

2. For chemical printing, the non-printing part of the printing plate (non-printing surface) is not contaminated with ink. The part is not depressed, raised, or blocked. It is due to chemical action that causes water absorption and ink rejection. The film makes it happen. Of course, the printed portion (printing surface) absorbs ink and water, and the unprinted portion absorbs water and ink, and water and grease are mutually reversed. It is still a physical phenomenon, but in the printing process, the unprinted portion must be constantly supplemented with water and water. The film of ink is chemically printed. Offset printing belongs to this category. Offset printing should add glue-like substances to the water tank solution, so that the mucus layer of the carboxyl group can be supplied from source to keep the non-printing part of the printing plate from being infected by grease.

Classification of printing methods based on the number of printing colors

According to the printing color number, the following distinctions can be made:

1. Monochrome printing: It is not limited to the black one, all who display the printed text in one color are all. Poly Color Printing is divided into three categories: Casing Method, Register Method, and Multi-color Method.

The color increaser adds another color to the double-line range in the monochrome image to make it clearer and more vivid for reading. Generally, children's reading brushes are mostly used; color registration methods are independent of each other, do not overlap each other, and there is no other color as the border line of the range, which is overprinted on the printed matter. General line sheets, product packaging paper, and terrain printing are mostly used.

2. Color printing: Multi-color printing. According to the Additive Color Mixing Process, the natural color original is decomposed into primary color separations, and then the pigment subtractive color mixing process is used to make the primary colors. The plate is reprinted on the same material to be printed, but the natural color print of the original is also due to the difference in the area of the original color overlap. All color prints are printed by the multi-color method, except for a few color-enhancing methods and color registration methods.

The four-color printing mainly uses the printing method. The four color inks of CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) are transferred to the printing material for color formation. The original of each of the four colors can be reproduced with different proportions Kind of color. To expand the color rendering space, there are also methods that use more than four colors (such as six-color printing). The packaging industry often adopts the method of four colors plus one or more spot colors to ensure that the user's needs for color are met, and the characteristics of anti-counterfeiting, special and individuality of printed matter are enhanced.

Classification of printing methods based on print use

Classified according to the purpose of printed matter, such as book printing, newspaper printing, advertising printing, banknote printing, map printing, stationery printing, packaging printing, special printing, etc.

Books and magazines were printed using letterpress. Gradually switch to lithography. 2. News printing. In the past, we used the letterpress rotary press to print, because of its fast speed and large print volume. Recently, in order to meet the needs of color, use lithographic or gravure rotary printing.

Advertising printing, including color pictures, pictorials, posters, etc., most of which are lithographic printing, sometimes also letterpress, gravure or stencil printing.

The printing of banknotes and other securities is mainly intaglio printing. It must also be supplemented by letterpress and lithography to do its best.

Map printing is suitable for photolithography. Because of its large size, high accuracy, more color registration, less print volume, and the original is mostly monochrome.

Stationery printing, such as envelopes, stationery, invitations, business cards, account books, workbooks, etc., must be inexpensive and printed in large quantities, so the quality is inferior, so letterpress printing is preferred.

Packaging and printing, such as various types of alkaline beet and vegetable foods, candy, biscuits, candied fruit, as large as various types of packaging corrugated boxes and wallpaper for room decoration, etc., are mostly printed by photogravure.

Special printing, such as bottles and cans, bronzing, embossing, hoses, electronics, circuits, stickers, tickets, foils. Special crafts or special materials.

Different printing methods according to printing plates:

According to the different plates used in the printing plate, there are wood plate, lithography plate, zinc plate (matal plate), aluminum plate, copper plate, nickel plate, steel plate, glass plate, stone gold plate, magnesium plate, electroplated multilayer plate, paper plate , Nylon, plastic, rubber, etc.

Wood plates, lithographs, glass plates, etc., cannot be deformed and can only be used for flat bed printing. Copper plate and steel plate are mostly used for gravure printing. The rest are used in lithographic or rotary presses.

Types of alloy plates are paper-type lead plates casted with aluminum, antimony, and tin alloy solutions, or typeset with movable type. There are magnesium, aluminum alloy Miraco version, and copper, nickel, alloy Moni metal version and so on.

The multi-layer metal plate has a double-layer metal plate with a chrome-plated copper bottom and a three-layer metal plate with a chrome-plated copper-layer steel bottom (even stainless steel is useful).

Different printing methods according to different printing materials:

According to the different printing materials used, printing can be divided into paper printing, iron printing, plastic printing, textile printing, board printing, glass printing and so on. Paper printing is the mainstream of printed matter, accounting for about 95%. It can be used for letterpress, lithography, gravure, and stencil printing. It is generally called ordinary printing. Printing materials other than paper are mostly special printing.

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